A short guide to your upcoming knee arthroplasty.

Knee image
If your knees hurt, you may be considering undergoing knee replacement surgery.
We’ll explain how your knees work and why they may wear out over time. Of course, we’ll also explain how knee prosthetic implants are made and what happens during knee arthroplasty.

For more general information on joint replacement, visit our guide and FAQs section.
Knee Anatomy The knee is a hinge joint made up of three main bones: the femur, the tibia, and the patella. Even when vulnerable and exposed, the knee is strong enough to support the whole body.

The patella is the bulge you feel when touching the front of your knee. It fixes onto the quadriceps muscle tendon and ends in the patellar tendon. The smaller bone of the lower leg, the fibula, is not part of the joint and moves very little.

The cruciate and collateral ligaments stabilize the knee joint, while the hamstring and quadriceps muscles move it. The femoral and tibial surfaces are covered in cartilage which guarantee smooth and painless knee motion. The menisci are also located between the femur and tibia. They help avoid damage by dispersing body weight and reducing friction during motion and high load transmissions.

Knee Joint-specific

Post-traumatic Arthritis

Post-traumatic arthritis develops in the knee after an injury. It can be due to fractures of the condyles or of the tibia plateau. It can also depend on traumatic or degenerative injuries of:

- cruciate or collateral ligaments;
- the medial and/or lateral meniscus.

As with degenerative osteoarthritis, post-traumatic arthritis may develop years after a fracture.

Knee Prosthetic implants Total knee replacement implants have three basic components: femoral, tibial, and patellar.

The femoral component is generally made of metal, and curves around the end of the femur.
The tibial component is a flat metal platform with a polyethylene insert or spacer.
The artificial patella component is a polyethylene, dome-shaped piece that mimics the knee cap.

If only one part of the knee needs replacement, the surgeon can use smaller implants. In this case, it is referred to as unicompartmental knee replacement.

If the solutions above fail, for whatever variety of reasons, a knee revision must occur with longer implants.
Knee Arthroplasty
  • The surgeon begins the knee replacement surgery by accessing the joint from the front.
  • Once the knee joint is open, they place a cutting guide to ensure that the bone is cut correctly.
  • The femoral and tibial components are made of metal, while the patella is usually made of polyethylene. A plastic section divides the femoral from the tibial component. If this plastic part should wear out, the surgeon can replace it without touching the rest of the implant.
  • Finally, the orthopedic surgeon closes the incision using staples.
Limacorporate S.p.A., as a manufacturer of prosthetic implants, does not practice the medical profession. The choice of the most suitable surgical intervention and technique is necessarily the responsibility of the holy professional. Each surgeon will have to evaluate the appropriateness of the implant technique he intends to carry out in the light of his own preparation, experience and clinical evaluation of each individual patient.
Your orthopedic surgeon is responsible for all recommendations and decisions about your medical care if you and your surgeon decide that joint replacement is appropriate for you. The following information also does not provide a complete or full discussion of the specifics of joint replacement surgery; the prosthesis that may be used; your care before, during, and after surgery; or the potential complications associated with surgery and your particular condition. Depending upon your particular condition, some of the general information provided may not be applicable to you. You will need to discuss the specifics of your case with your surgeon. LimaCorporate does not guarantee any specific results, recovery or rehabilitation.
WARNING: Please remember the information on this document is for educational purposes only and should not be used to make a decision on a condition or a procedure. All decisions should be made in conjunction with your surgeon and your primary care provider.
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